Policy brief

Making Sense of Career-Technical Education

Options for California
W. Norton Grubb
University of California, Berkeley
David Stern
University of California, Berkeley


A PACE Policy Brief by W. Norton Grubb and David Stern. Career-technical education (CTE) is back in the policy spotlight, as Governor Schwarzenegger and key legislators seek strategies to strengthen California’s much-criticized high schools. Some forms of CTE that integrate academic with occupational content could usefully be expanded to provide high school students with multiple pathways to college and careers. This strategy, which we call “CTE/multiple pathways,” is more feasible and desirable for California high schools than other approaches to CTE — including the traditional vocational education of the past century, the “dual” systems developed in Austria and Germany, or the sophisticated technical training provided in community colleges.
Suggested citationNorton Grubb, W., & Stern, D. (2007, April). Making sense of career–technical education: Options for California [Policy brief]. Policy Analysis for California Education. https://edpolicyinca.org/publications/making-sense-career-technical-education-options-california