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In 1975, California Governor Edmund G. Brown, Jr. signed the Rodda Act into law. Formally known as the Education Employment Relations Act (later changed to the Public Employment Relations Act), this statute gave the state's public school teachers the right to bargain collectively and negotiate with their employer legally binding contracts governing the terms and conditions of their employment. Though the Rodda Act is on California's books, the law's provisions are not unique to this state. Laws in the 37 states that authorize collective bargaining for teachers are patterned on the federal...
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This paper is a baseline analysis of how many teachers will be needed in California over the next 10 years. By baseline analysis, we mean that the authors have taken data on student enrollment projections and looked at several variables that affect the number of teachers available in the years to come. These variables include the expected rate at which new teachers come into the profession and the rate at which teachers retire. Both of these variables are difficult to estimate. The baseline analysis that is presented does not try to include several critical events that have occurred in recent...
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The history of intergovernmental relations in educa­tion policy has been dominated by regulations, categorical programs, and technical assistance by higher levels of government to stimulate or require lower levels to make changes in policy and practice. There have been many metaphors to depict education pol­icy within intergovernmental relations including marble cake or picket fence. The marble cake metaphor recognizes that the federal, state, and local levels are not distinct, and policy spills over from one level to another. The picket fence metaphor is based on categorical programs like...
A Report of the California Task Force on the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
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What is the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards? What does it mean for California's more than 200,000 teachers and for the communities in which they work? How can a national system of voluntary certification give new vitality and stature to teaching? This document is an initial response to such questions. It is the product of nearly eight months of deliberation by 35 teachers, administrators, teacher educators, parents, school board representatives, and foundation officials—the California Task Force on the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. The task force was...
Increasing Teacher Salary Options
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Classrooms across the country are losing many of their best teachers in their first few years of teaching. One of the primary reasons given by teachers for leaving teaching is low salaries. Although teacher pay has increased nearly 20% over the last decade, it still remains lower than for many other professions requiring a similar level of preparation. And because of shifting demographics and a recession-hit economy, it is not likely to rise dramatically in the near future. One option for raising teachers' salaries within the confines of restricted state and local budgets is an extended...
A New Strategy for Linking Research and Practice
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The need to bring research to bear on the problems of educational practice has never been greater. U.S. schools face a number of critical challenges in the years ahead. Two of the most cited examples are incorporat­ing increasing numbers of educationally disadvantaged students into the educa­tional mainstream and preparing students for an increasingly competitive and techno­logically advanced work environment. In order to meet these challenges, a vari­ety of reform efforts are under way at the local, state, and federal levels. Research should play an important role in meeting these challenges...
Lessons from the California School Leadership Academy
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Current thinking about reform in American education emphasizes the need for school principals to serve as instructional leaders. Support for this position is derived from several research bases: site-based management and restructuring; school change; school improvement; policy implementation; staff development; the administrator as instructional leader; and school/district effectiveness. A common element in these bodies of research is the potential power of the administrator as a significant force in the improvement of the organizational conditions and instructional forces that affect student...
What Schools Must Do
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This article contends that school-linked services and education reform efforts are integrally related. Successful implementation of school-linked services requires new roles and responsibilities for all levels of school personnel. Drawing on general experience and citing specific examples from the New Beginnings experi­ence in San Diego, the article outlines these new roles and responsibilities for school superintendents, board members, principals, and teachers. It describes the plan­ning process involved, a process that includes an initial feasibility study and commu­nity needs assessment; a...
Recruiting and Preparing Teachers for an Urban Context
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For at least 20 years, traditional approaches to teacher recruitment have not provided sufficient numbers of teachers to meet the needs of urban areas or for high-demand subject areas such as mathematics, science, bilingual education, and special education. Supporters of alternative routes to teacher certification argue that these programs are an effective way to recruit academically competent individuals to teach in hard-to-staff schools and to allow school districts to replace the emergency credential system with a rigorous program of field-based professional training. Critics of alternative...
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Conventionally, educational evaluation has concentrated on measuring individual student achievement, appraising instructional methods and materials, and assessing program perfor­mance. Major issues in the field have been scholarly and methodological. The central career orientation of educational evaluators has been toward academic colleagues and practicing educators. However, contemporary education reform efforts aimed at using schooling to en­hance national economic development are altering this conventional orientation. Managerial expectations are replacing professional relations as the...
Recruiting and Preparing Teachers for an Urban Context
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Alternative routes into teaching have been widely criticized by the teacher education community as "quick fix" solutions to teacher short­ages, an approach which recruits substandard teachers, provides inade­quate professional education, and results in a decline in the quality of instruction in the public schools. Paradoxically, such programs often represent an attempt on behalf of states and school districts to upgrade teaching standards already downgraded by teaching shortages that result in the use of emergency credentialed and misassigned teachers. For at least 20 years, traditional...