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The changing conditions of children in California will necessitate significant increases in public expenditures. For example, the annual enrollment growth in schools alone will increase education expenditures by about 3 percent. Many of these additional children will require special services due to recent immigration, working parents, poverty, or family disorganization. Great strain will be placed on county and school district resources in order to keep pace with growth and tailor programs to the particular circumstances of various localities. The current system for financing children's...
1960 to 1988
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There have been significant changes in public school funding in the United States since 1960. Public schools have enjoyed a history of continuous increases in real funding in both total and per pupil terms during this period. While catalysts for this support can be traced in part to well-known critical events—Sputnik in the 1950s, poverty and equity programs in the 1960s, enrollment growth in both decades, school finance and property tax reform in the 1970s, and education quality reforms in the 1980s—to a large degree the long-term nature of continued rising school funds reflects underlying...
What Did Senate Bill 813 Buy?
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California spends a huge amount of public money, more than any other state, to support .kindergarten through 12th grade schools. These schools now serve more than 4.8 million students, and in 1988–89 the state expects to expend almost $23 billion for their financial support. State funding for schools represents an awesome amount of money in an absolute sense and it occupies the largest proportion of the state's overall budget. As if these two factors alone were insufficient to draw attention to school funding, at least two other conditions have been evolving which render education finance an...
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In early November 1987, Superintendent of Public Instruction Bill Honig issued two pages of charts and accompanying narrative entitled The Average Costs of a California School 1985–86. This document presented a brief, composite picture of California school expenditures for fiscal year 1985-86 (the most recent year in which full fiscal information was available) in order to provide a "clearly understandable picture of California schools and how they spend their resources." In summary form, this analysis divided school expenditures into four categories, or cost centers (Chart 1). The description...
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This paper provides an overview of California's school finance system, including selected school finance facts; descriptions of the general revenue limit and categorical programs funding formulas; and, for each program, the amount appropriated for 1986-87, the number of districts participating, and number of students served.
School Uses of Lottery Revenue: Year One
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Since its passage in the fall of 1984, the California State Lottery has been widely and enthusiastically supported by players while receiving more guarded support from educators. Now the largest state operated lottery in the nation, California's program generated an unheard of $1.77 billion in ticket sales during its first fiscal year of operation, a year that included only nine months of sales, due to a later-than-anticipated start up. The lottery's contribution to all public education that year amounted to $689 million. Elementary and secondary schools received approximately $555 million, a...
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This paper argues that the components of educa­tional provisions which satisfy private demands, mythology aside, almost invariably win out over the public goods components. If true, this leads, on the one hand, to a diminished supply of social benefits, and, on the other, to a stifling of social mobility. Insofar as these arguments are correct, they also may apply in most coun­tries of the world, whether capitalist or socialist. This article was originally published in the Journal of Education Finance by the University of Illinois Press and Journal Storage (JSTOR).

1985–1986 Evaluation Report
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The Peninsula Academies are a three-year high school program for at-risk students, designed to provide them with incentives both to graduate and to acquire labor market-relevant skills. An Academy combines academic and technical training in a school-within-a-school setting. It is based on a school-business partnership, and offers students access to guest speakers, career-oriented field trips, employee mentors, and work experience. Since the fall of 1981, the Peninsula Academies have been operated by the Sequoia Union High School District in Redwood City, California. In the fall of 1985, ten...
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Until about 1980, the issues surrounding public school finance remained the same. They were fiscal in nature and included spending inequalities related to differences in school district property wealth per pupil; technicalities related to various state equalization formulas; funding structures that recognized higher costs for special student populations; and, in some in­stances, state/local tax levels and burdens by income class. The major concern was how equitably to finance education in general. Stimulated largely by legal action mandating change, school fi­nance reform with respect to these...
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This paper discusses the recent course of elementary and secondary education in California and its needs for the next five years. Funding is a key element in the health of the system, and several trends are evident. First, since 1978 real revenues per pupil for California's K–12 public education system have fallen significantly in three years, risen significantly in three others, and stayed about the same in two other years-a roller coaster pattern of funding, and a pattern making it difficult at best for local educators to plan sound, medium term education programs. Second, inflation-adjusted...
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This study of participation in the Minimum Teacher Salary provision of S.B. 813 was undertaken by PACE in response to concerns that districts were not taking advantage of the act The Legislative Analyst in the Analysis of the Budget Bill has consistently reported underusage of funds appropriated for this measure. For example, under S.B. 813 approximately $12.3 million was appropriated for 1983–84 costs. Only $2.9 million was claimed In 1984–85 $24.8 million was appropriated, yet a survey conducted by the Legislative Analyst's Office indicated that claims would total only $6.5 million. A number...
The Link Between Assessment and Financial Support
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Public school policy mak­ing is embedded in a complex societal matrix. It is not possi­ble to consider the future of U.S. schools without examining the size and distribution of future populations; the future state of the economy and its ef­fect on funds available for the schools; and the political context within which decisions will be made. The public school system is a "dependent variable" of larger social and economic forces. This article was originally published in the Phi Delta Kappan by Phi Delta Kappa International and Journal Storage (JSTOR).
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Less than three years have elapsed since the release of A Nation at Risk and the accom­panying calls to improve U.S. public schools. Yet a number of state legislatures have already acted on the basic recommendations of that and oth­er, similar reports. Indeed, the educa­tion reform movement has moved faster than any public policy reform in modem history. All the states have expanded their school improvement programs; nearly all have increased high school graduation requirements; most have stiffened college admission require­ments; many are deepening the content of course offerings; and many...
A Rising Tide or Steady Fiscal State?
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Rising national demands to improve public K–12 education are expected to boost financial support for schools; state education reform programs (especially those funded by tax increases) are commonly perceived to increase education funding dramatically. Analysis of changes in education funding across all 50 states during the 1980s shows that education revenues per pupil are neither increasing nor decreasing overall, but are staying constant after adjusting for en­rollment increases and inflation. While recent funding increases have halted the drop in the real level of resources per pupil that...
Waivers and School-Based Program Coordination Under AB 777
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Enacted in 1981 as part of AB 777, the waiver authority provides school districts relief from the prescriptive nature of California's voluminous Education Code. If a particular law or regulation conflicts with a local situation, school districts may seek alternatives by requesting a waiver of state requirements, subject to local and state review (State Board of Education). Each school district must justify the need for a waiver. However, waivers are automatically approved unless the State Board of Education finds grounds for denial. "Not meeting student needs," "jeopardizing parental...
1985–1986 Through 1989–1990
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Expenditures for elementary and secondary education in California must rise by about 59 percent between 1983–84 and the end of the decade just to maintain the status quo in terms of real per student spending. This would amount to a K–12 budget in 1989-90 of $21.9 billion. Yet, kindergarten-through-twelth-grade revenues are projected to grow by only 50 percent (under one scenario) or by about 72 percent (under another). In other words, unless the revenue structure is significantly altered, projected school revenues through 1990 will be inadequate to maintain the same level of spending per...