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A comprehensive inventory of formal staff development activity and costs in 30 California districts yields a portrait of locally organized opportunities for teachers and reveals the policy stance taken by districts toward teachers and their professional development. Present patterns of resource allocation consolidate the districts' role as the dominant provider of teachers' professional development; other sources, including the university or the larger professional community of teachers, are less visible. Expenditures reflect a conception of professional development based almost exclusively on...
Broadening the Vision of School Labor-Management Relations: A First-Year Progress Report
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The purposes of the Trust Agreement Project are: 1) to develop new forms of school organization and new patterns of relationships among teachers and school administrators, and 2) to expand the range of labor-management discussions in education from the technical, procedural work rules that are the traditional purview of collective bargaining to substantive areas of educational policy. The 1987–88 Trust Agreement Project was a collaborative effort of the California Federation of Teachers and the California School Boards Association, under the auspices of Policy Analysis for California Education...
Public and Personal Investments, Program Patterns, and Policy Choices: Executive Summary
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The California Staff Development Policy Study was initiated by the legislature and governor in response to a steady escalation in the number and costs of staff development programs. Results of the study will be used to assess the possibilities and limitations of staff development as an instrument of state and local policy intended to improve the quality of classroom teaching and learning. For purposes of this study, staff development is defined as any activity that is intended partly or primarily to prepare paid staff members for improved performance in present or future roles in the school...
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In February 1985 PACE convened a group of attorneys representing teacher organizations and school districts. Joining them were education policy experts from legislative and executive offices and from education and private organizations. Our purpose was to explore the effect of Senate Bill 813 on teacher dismissal. SB 813, California's omnibus school reform legislation of 1983, changed the process by which teachers are dismissed for cause. Senate Education Committee staff had posed the questions: Does SB 813 facilitate the dismissal of teachers? Is there an empirical record demonstrating the...
Results of a PACE Survey
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This study reports the results of a survey carried out by Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE) for the Public Employment Relations Board (PERB). The purpose of the survey was to assess the effectiveness of the factfinding mechanism for resolving disputes affecting California's public school employees. First among the findings, and most important, the overwhelming view of respondents was that the factfinding process assisted parties in reaching a settlement This finding held across roles of participants, by geographic region, size of district, and every other dimension surveyed. Not...
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Since 1983, California has made substantial policy and financial investments in improving public K–12 education. Teaching remains a prime challenge within this school reform agenda due in large part to the fact that educational reforms depend crucially for their implementation upon cadres of classroom teachers. The performance, character, and commitment of California's teaching force determines not only the short-run nature of schooling but also shapes the lives and social conditions of Californians for years to come. The purpose of this forum is to discuss the major teacher-related policy...

Is the Reserve Pool a Realistic Source of Supply?
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An adequate supply of qualified teachers is central to improving education in California. Our supply and demand projections indicate that teacher shortages will be concentrated in specific subject areas and geographical regions. Shortages may undermine recent educational improvements. Moreover, if additional proposed reforms are enacted, such as reducing pupil/teacher ratios, disallowing emergency credentials, and requiring teachers to teach only in their areas of expertise, then teacher shortages will intensify and strong incentives may be necessary to recruit sufficient numbers of highly...
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This article addresses two conflicting trends in U.S. education. On one hand, there is a considerable expansion of statewide controls of education, including new statewide accountability schemes. On the other, there is a resurgence of interest in the professionalization of teaching. These trends are conflicting—at least for the moment­—because state accountability has tended to bureaucratize education and not pay sufficient attention to its impact on the professional dimension of teaching. This article was originally published in Education and Urban Society by SAGE Publications.
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The California State Department of Education is developing a multipurpose data system on California education that contains basic information on staff, enrollment, finance, facilities, curriculum, and community demography related to public elementary and secondary schools. The California Basic Educational Data System (CBEDS), part of the larger multipurpose data system, collects information on staff members and students at the county, school district, and classroom levels. These data are collected once a year in October on "Information Day," then converted to file form. Subsequently, the data...
California Teachers' Opinions on Working Conditions and Reform Proposals
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This report resulted from an opinion survey of California teachers. The survey was conducted in the spring of 1985. Surveys were mailed to 1,100 California classroom teachers. Survey participants reflect a true cross-section of all California teachers. More than 70% of those surveyed returned completed questionnaires. This unusually high rate of return plus the representative nature of the survey sample make it possible to generalize survey conclusions to California teachers as a whole.
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An adequate supply of qualified teachers is central to improving education. Supply and demand projections indicate that teacher shortages will be concentrated in certain subject and geographic areas. The shortages may undermine recent educational improvements. If substantial changes in pupil/teach­er ratios and teacher certification requirements, such as those evaluated in this report, are seriously contemplated, strong incentives will be necessary to recruit enough qualified teach­ers. If class sizes and teacher certification requirements remain unchanged, an average annual shortfall of...
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This paper discusses alternative governance structures that could improve the performance of credentialing as well as enhance the teaching profession in California.
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Accountability can be part of the solution. That is, accountability can lead to school improvement. However, accountability can also be part of the problem. It can lead to gross distortions. Teaching is a complex task. Our best understanding of the learning process suggests that good teaching has to be tailored to the particular intellectual structure of each learner. This suggests the need for considerable teacher discretion. It also suggests that there is no easy way to measure effective teaching because there is no easy way to assess how different teaching strategies contribute to actual...
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Today, in California, we are at a critical juncture with respect to education. California is predicted lo need between 150.000 to 190,000 additional teachers between 1984 and 1991. The State will have to replace up to 75% of the teaching force. As many as 77 million Califor­nia students could pass through the classes of these new teachers. The State has an opportunity to ensure that all these children receive the best possible teaching. This paper offers recommendations as to how the Slate of California could improve the quality of teaching in its schools. We suggest changes in three main...