This report presents findings from the third annual evaluation of the Partnership Academy Programs in California. These are high school-based, state-funded programs selected through a grants competition conducted by the state Department of Education. They are based on SB 605, passed during the 1987 legislative session.
During the 1987–88 school year, there were twelve academies operating in the state
The growing demand for compensatory education and for child care has generated a rash of federal legislation; many states have enacted new early childhood programs, most of them located within schooling systems, and many others are considering their options. This article examines the basic policy issues governments confront in early childhood education, including the content of programs, their financing, and the inevitable trade-off between cost and quality.
A comprehensive inventory of formal staff development activity and costs in 30 California districts yields a portrait of locally organized opportunities for teachers and reveals the policy stance taken by districts toward teachers and their professional development. Present patterns of resource allocation consolidate the districts' role as the dominant provider of teachers' professional development; other sources, including the university or the larger professional community of teachers, are less visible.
This monograph represents an attempt to consider the growing body of research on child care quality in a new light. Over the past decade, early childhood educators and researchers have begun to identify a number of characteristics that most would argue are essential in providing quality out-of-home care for young children. Some researchers have focused on the relative salience of a particular aspect of care as an indicator of quality; important factors include adult-child ratio, group size or caregiver training.
This paper reports 1987–88 results from an evaluation of 11 academy programs in California high schools. Academies are schools within schools, combining academic and vocational courses in a program designed to reduce dropout rates. The evaluation used a matched comparison group for each cohort of academy students at each site. Results for in-school outcomes were generally positive.
Like a lady "of a certain age," school districts of a certain size have sometimes been considered to be, well, not the most desirable. The "wrong" size, for the last half century at least, has been size small. How small? That depended on the researcher: some felt that a thousand was big enough; some preferred ten thousand; and some never quite specified. But for a long time in America, the only good school districts were said to be large school districts. As with most educational issues, the pendulum is swinging back on the subject of district size.
The changing conditions of children in California will necessitate significant increases in public expenditures. For example, the annual enrollment growth in schools alone will increase education expenditures by about 3 percent. Many of these additional children will require special services due to recent immigration, working parents, poverty, or family disorganization. Great strain will be placed on county and school district resources in order to keep pace with growth and tailor programs to the particular circumstances of various localities.
There have been significant changes in public school funding in the United States since 1960. Public schools have enjoyed a history of continuous increases in real funding in both total and per pupil terms during this period.
This report is an attempt lo assemble a set of social indicators that suggest an overall portrait of the quality of California's children. It synthesizes material not readily available to policy makers; points out gaps In available data; and where appropriate, offers limited policy recommendations. Data are included on physical and mental health, physical safely, sexual behavior, and academic achievement.
The purposes of the Trust Agreement Project are: 1) to develop new forms of school organization and new patterns of relationships among teachers and school administrators, and 2) to expand the range of labor-management discussions in education from the technical, procedural work rules that are the traditional purview of collective bargaining to substantive areas of educational policy.
The first wave of school reform has crashed upon the education beach, but are other waves now forming out at sea?
California spends a huge amount of public money, more than any other state, to support .kindergarten through 12th grade schools. These schools now serve more than 4.8 million students, and in 1988–89 the state expects to expend almost $23 billion for their financial support.
This paper reports results from the first two years of an effort in 10 high schools to replicate the California Peninsula Academies. The Academy model combines the core academic curriculum with technical instruction in a particular occupational field. Local employers representing that field participate in various ways. The program is intended to improve the school performance of students who would otherwise be likely to drop out.
In early November 1987, Superintendent of Public Instruction Bill Honig issued two pages of charts and accompanying narrative entitled The Average Costs of a California School 1985–86. This document presented a brief, composite picture of California school expenditures for fiscal year 1985-86 (the most recent year in which full fiscal information was available) in order to provide a "clearly understandable picture of California schools and how they spend their resources."
The first class of participants in four of the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation's "Jobs for the Disadvantaged" programs graduated in June 1987. The telephone interview survey described in this report gathered information on the educational and work status of these graduates six months later, along with similar information for a matched comparison group of nonparticipants in each site.
Can broad state-level initiatives for school reform actually improve local schools? Using data collected in California, this article answers that question affirmatively—but it also reminds readers that successful local implementation of state-level initiatives depends on several factors.
In the fall of 1985, 10 academy programs were established by the State of California as replications of the Peninsula Academies. Policy Analysis for California Education evaluated these 10 academies in 1985–86. This report presents findings from a second evaluation covering the academies' 1986–87 school year.
In early 1980, the Clark Foundation launched an ambitious series of demonstration programs designed to address the high rate of school dropouts and youth unemployment in several American cities. These programs shared a focus on disadvantaged minority youth, but they varied in their structure from site to site—from a focus on job search and placement in grades 11 and 12, to academic skills and vocational training throughout high school.
This is the fourth edition of Conditions of Education in California. It is the most extensive and inclusive issue yet. It has been altered in both content and format. The content has been expanded. In addition to previously appearing components such as enrollments, curriculum, governance, human resources, student performance, and finance, a special features section has been added. This year, education reform processes are the topic of this new section. Next year we will select a different topic on which to concentrate.
California's increased high school graduation and college entrance requirements have changed course-taking patterns among California high school students. Enrollment has increased in all levels of math, science, and foreign language instruction. More students are enrolled in advanced placement classes. In addition, California's new state frameworks for math, science, and foreign language contain state-of-the-art instructional guidance for district curriculum leaders and teachers.
In 1983, California enacted a comprehensive bill (Senate Bill 813) containing dozens of education reform provisions. The scope of the proposed changes had no previous parallel. The bill's many ideas for school improvement, if implemented, potentially could have altered the curriculum and instructional practices of virtually every school in the state.
Americans generally hold the belief that success comes through education. And in many fields, the years of schooling required for employment have risen dramatically. Despite this emphasis on education, however, thousands of students continue to drop out.
In the early 1980s, a study of California secondary students' pathways through high school documented an erosion in secondary school curriculum. Electives had replaced academic courses; student exposure to sound mathematics, science, and U.S. history had dropped; and courses taken to graduate from high school had failed to aggregate into a clear body of knowledge.
The California Staff Development Policy Study was initiated by the legislature and governor in response to a steady escalation in the number and costs of staff development programs. Results of the study will be used to assess the possibilities and limitations of staff development as an instrument of state and local policy intended to improve the quality of classroom teaching and learning.
The School-to-Work and Academy Demonstration programs, funded under the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation's "Programs for Disadvantaged Youth," attempt to improve school retention and transitions to work for high school students in seven cities.