1987–88 Evaluation Report
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This report presents findings from the third annual evaluation of the Partnership Academy Programs in California. These are high school-based, state-funded programs selected through a grants competition conducted by the state Department of Education. They are based on SB 605, passed during the 1987 legislative session. During the 1987–88 school year, there were twelve academies operating in the state two original Peninsula Academies, in the Sequoia Union High School District in Redwood City, begun in the fall of 1981; eight replications begun in the fall of 1985, four of which are in the Bay...
A Hypothetical Account and Research Review
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This monograph represents an attempt to consider the growing body of research on child care quality in a new light. Over the past decade, early childhood educators and researchers have begun to identify a number of characteristics that most would argue are essential in providing quality out-of-home care for young children. Some researchers have focused on the relative salience of a particular aspect of care as an indicator of quality; important factors include adult-child ratio, group size or caregiver training. Usually, the quality of adult-child social or verbal behavior is the measure...
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The changing conditions of children in California will necessitate significant increases in public expenditures. For example, the annual enrollment growth in schools alone will increase education expenditures by about 3 percent. Many of these additional children will require special services due to recent immigration, working parents, poverty, or family disorganization. Great strain will be placed on county and school district resources in order to keep pace with growth and tailor programs to the particular circumstances of various localities. The current system for financing children's...
1960 to 1988
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There have been significant changes in public school funding in the United States since 1960. Public schools have enjoyed a history of continuous increases in real funding in both total and per pupil terms during this period. While catalysts for this support can be traced in part to well-known critical events—Sputnik in the 1950s, poverty and equity programs in the 1960s, enrollment growth in both decades, school finance and property tax reform in the 1970s, and education quality reforms in the 1980s—to a large degree the long-term nature of continued rising school funds reflects underlying...
Chapter Highlights
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This report is an attempt lo assemble a set of social indicators that suggest an overall portrait of the quality of California's children. It synthesizes material not readily available to policy­ makers; points out gaps In available data; and where appropriate, offers limited policy recommendations. Data are included on physical and mental health, physical safely, sexual behavior, and academic achievement. Because children are largely dependent upon settings and services controlled by adults, the report also attempts to evaluate the conditions of the settings in which children develop—families...
Broadening the Vision of School Labor-Management Relations: A First-Year Progress Report
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The purposes of the Trust Agreement Project are: 1) to develop new forms of school organization and new patterns of relationships among teachers and school administrators, and 2) to expand the range of labor-management discussions in education from the technical, procedural work rules that are the traditional purview of collective bargaining to substantive areas of educational policy. The 1987–88 Trust Agreement Project was a collaborative effort of the California Federation of Teachers and the California School Boards Association, under the auspices of Policy Analysis for California Education...
What Did Senate Bill 813 Buy?
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California spends a huge amount of public money, more than any other state, to support .kindergarten through 12th grade schools. These schools now serve more than 4.8 million students, and in 1988–89 the state expects to expend almost $23 billion for their financial support. State funding for schools represents an awesome amount of money in an absolute sense and it occupies the largest proportion of the state's overall budget. As if these two factors alone were insufficient to draw attention to school funding, at least two other conditions have been evolving which render education finance an...
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In early November 1987, Superintendent of Public Instruction Bill Honig issued two pages of charts and accompanying narrative entitled The Average Costs of a California School 1985–86. This document presented a brief, composite picture of California school expenditures for fiscal year 1985-86 (the most recent year in which full fiscal information was available) in order to provide a "clearly understandable picture of California schools and how they spend their resources." In summary form, this analysis divided school expenditures into four categories, or cost centers (Chart 1). The description...
Graduate Follow-up Survey
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The first class of participants in four of the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation's "Jobs for the Disadvantaged" programs graduated in June 1987. The telephone interview survey described in this report gathered information on the educational and work status of these graduates six months later, along with similar information for a matched comparison group of nonparticipants in each site. There were relatively small numbers of graduates in these four sites: 74 program and 45 comparison-group members. While response rates were high—94 percent among program participants and 88 percent among...
1986–87 Evaluation Report
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In the fall of 1985, 10 academy programs were established by the State of California as replications of the Peninsula Academies. Policy Analysis for California Education evaluated these 10 academies in 1985–86. This report presents findings from a second evaluation covering the academies' 1986–87 school year.
Program Successes and Evaluations Under 'Jobs for the Disadvantaged'
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In early 1980, the Clark Foundation launched an ambitious series of demonstration programs designed to address the high rate of school dropouts and youth unemployment in several American cities. These programs shared a focus on disadvantaged minority youth, but they varied in their structure from site to site—from a focus on job search and placement in grades 11 and 12, to academic skills and vocational training throughout high school. Beginning with the 1984–85 school year, the evaluations' emphasis moved from technical assistance and process evaluation to assessing changes in student...
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This is the fourth edition of Conditions of Education in California. It is the most extensive and inclusive issue yet. It has been altered in both content and format. The content has been expanded. In addition to previously appearing components such as enrollments, curriculum, governance, human resources, student performance, and finance, a special features section has been added. This year, education reform processes are the topic of this new section. Next year we will select a different topic on which to concentrate. Of course, we continue in this edition to include the sections on the...
Recent Changes and Prospective Trends
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California's increased high school graduation and college entrance requirements have changed course-taking patterns among California high school students. Enrollment has increased in all levels of math, science, and foreign language instruction. More students are enrolled in advanced placement classes. In addition, California's new state frameworks for math, science, and foreign language contain state-of-the-art instructional guidance for district curriculum leaders and teachers. These accomplishments reflect the goals of recent school reforms and address the belief that in order to be...
Part I: Study Findings
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In 1983, California enacted a comprehensive bill (Senate Bill 813) containing dozens of education reform provisions. The scope of the proposed changes had no previous parallel. The bill's many ideas for school improvement, if implemented, potentially could have altered the curriculum and instructional practices of virtually every school in the state. However, despite the bill's sweeping scope, and the large accompanying revenue increases, it included neither a proven effective reform philosophy nor a cohesive school change strategy. At the most fundamental level, Senate Bill 813 represented a...
A Preschool Through High School Concern
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Americans generally hold the belief that success comes through education. And in many fields, the years of schooling required for employment have risen dramatically. Despite this emphasis on education, however, thousands of students continue to drop out. Understanding why students drop out is important in developing effective dropout prevention strategies. But by focusing on the specific act of dropping out and emphasizing associated consequences, educators have often neglected the search for earlier clues. As students progress through the grades, their experiences shape their thinking about...
Part II: Background and Technical Appendices
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In the early 1980s, a study of California secondary students' pathways through high school documented an erosion in secondary school curriculum. Electives had replaced academic courses; student exposure to sound mathematics, science, and U.S. history had dropped; and courses taken to graduate from high school had failed to aggregate into a clear body of knowledge. In 1982, the California Business Roundtable proposed a series of reforms to remedy these system declines. Also in 1982, Bill Honig, then a member of the State Board of Education, won election to the office of superintendent of public...
Public and Personal Investments, Program Patterns, and Policy Choices: Executive Summary
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Summary
The California Staff Development Policy Study was initiated by the legislature and governor in response to a steady escalation in the number and costs of staff development programs. Results of the study will be used to assess the possibilities and limitations of staff development as an instrument of state and local policy intended to improve the quality of classroom teaching and learning. For purposes of this study, staff development is defined as any activity that is intended partly or primarily to prepare paid staff members for improved performance in present or future roles in the school...
1986–1987 Evaluation Report
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The School-to-Work and Academy Demonstration programs, funded under the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation's "Programs for Disadvantaged Youth," attempt to improve school retention and transitions to work for high school students in seven cities. This evaluation of the School-to-Work and Academy Demonstration programs entails both process and outcome components. The process component relies upon a case study description of each program, including a summary of its setting, design, management structure, and target group. Information for this segment of the evaluation derives from site visits, staff...
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In February 1985 PACE convened a group of attorneys representing teacher organizations and school districts. Joining them were education policy experts from legislative and executive offices and from education and private organizations. Our purpose was to explore the effect of Senate Bill 813 on teacher dismissal. SB 813, California's omnibus school reform legislation of 1983, changed the process by which teachers are dismissed for cause. Senate Education Committee staff had posed the questions: Does SB 813 facilitate the dismissal of teachers? Is there an empirical record demonstrating the...
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Vocational education in California is experiencing increasing criticism and significant enrollment declines. Between 1982-83 and 1984-85, for example, industrial arts enrollment dropped 16 percent and home economics enrollment declined 21 percent. While associating declines in these courses with the increased academic offerings and requirements for high school graduation and college entrance that occurred simultaneously bears further study, vocational education enrollment began decreasing shortly after Proposition 13 in 1978, long before new academic standards were imposed. This substantial...
A Study of Year-Round Education in California
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This study of year-round education programs in California was prompted by a recent increase in the number of schools that have shifted to year­-round programs. In an era of increasing enrollments, particularly among large minority-populated urban school districts, and fierce competition for scarce educational resources, many districts are choosing year-round education over more traditional alternatives such as portable classrooms, split sessions, and construction of new schools. For the most part, the decision to convert to a year-round program is based on what is the most expedient way to...
Results of a PACE Survey
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This study reports the results of a survey carried out by Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE) for the Public Employment Relations Board (PERB). The purpose of the survey was to assess the effectiveness of the factfinding mechanism for resolving disputes affecting California's public school employees. First among the findings, and most important, the overwhelming view of respondents was that the factfinding process assisted parties in reaching a settlement This finding held across roles of participants, by geographic region, size of district, and every other dimension surveyed. Not...
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This paper provides an overview of California's school finance system, including selected school finance facts; descriptions of the general revenue limit and categorical programs funding formulas; and, for each program, the amount appropriated for 1986-87, the number of districts participating, and number of students served.
A Critical Linkage
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The adoption of new CSU admission requirements closely parallels other state-level action over the last few years calling for a more coherent pattern of academic course work in California high schools. Cumulatively, these multiple forces have produced significant pressures on high schools to increase academic offerings and to meet the new standards. Although the proposed changes were generated from an array of sources, they are remarkably consistent and send a set of reasonably clear signals to schools. The pressure for change combined with a substantial influx of state dollars has resulted in...
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This survey and analysis is pan of a larger study, A Study to Determine How to Organize and Expand Public School Programs to Reduce Dropout Rates for High Risk Students: Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents, undertaken by the California Senate Office of Research and funded in pan by the National Conference of State Legislators and the United States Office of Educational Research and Improvement The Senate Office of Research contracted with Policy Analysis for California Education to examine existing secondary sources such as available records of the California State Department of Education and...