1987–88 Evaluation Report
Published
Summary
This report presents findings from the third annual evaluation of the Partnership Academy Programs in California. These are high school-based, state-funded programs selected through a grants competition conducted by the state Department of Education. They are based on SB 605, passed during the 1987 legislative session. During the 1987–88 school year, there were twelve academies operating in the state two original Peninsula Academies, in the Sequoia Union High School District in Redwood City, begun in the fall of 1981; eight replications begun in the fall of 1985, four of which are in the Bay...
A Hypothetical Account and Research Review
Publication author
Published
Summary
This monograph represents an attempt to consider the growing body of research on child care quality in a new light. Over the past decade, early childhood educators and researchers have begun to identify a number of characteristics that most would argue are essential in providing quality out-of-home care for young children. Some researchers have focused on the relative salience of a particular aspect of care as an indicator of quality; important factors include adult-child ratio, group size or caregiver training. Usually, the quality of adult-child social or verbal behavior is the measure...
Third-Year Results from Replications of the California Peninsula Academies
Published
Summary
This paper reports 1987–88 results from an evaluation of 11 academy programs in California high schools. Academies are schools within schools, combining academic and vocational courses in a program designed to reduce dropout rates. The evaluation used a matched comparison group for each cohort of academy students at each site. Results for in-school outcomes were generally positive. Focusing on one grade-level cohort for which graduation rates are available, the number of dropouts saved was estimated, along with the costs and economic benefits to society. The estimated net benefit from dropout...
An Exploration of the Debate on School District Size
Publication author
Published
Summary
Like a lady "of a certain age," school districts of a certain size have sometimes been considered to be, well, not the most desirable. The "wrong" size, for the last half century at least, has been size small. How small? That depended on the researcher: some felt that a thousand was big enough; some preferred ten thousand; and some never quite specified. But for a long time in America, the only good school districts were said to be large school districts. As with most educational issues, the pendulum is swinging back on the subject of district size. During the period from World War II to the...
Publication authors
Published
Summary
The changing conditions of children in California will necessitate significant increases in public expenditures. For example, the annual enrollment growth in schools alone will increase education expenditures by about 3 percent. Many of these additional children will require special services due to recent immigration, working parents, poverty, or family disorganization. Great strain will be placed on county and school district resources in order to keep pace with growth and tailor programs to the particular circumstances of various localities. The current system for financing children's...
Chapter Highlights
Published
Summary
This report is an attempt lo assemble a set of social indicators that suggest an overall portrait of the quality of California's children. It synthesizes material not readily available to policy­ makers; points out gaps In available data; and where appropriate, offers limited policy recommendations. Data are included on physical and mental health, physical safely, sexual behavior, and academic achievement. Because children are largely dependent upon settings and services controlled by adults, the report also attempts to evaluate the conditions of the settings in which children develop—families...
Graduate Follow-up Survey
Publication author
Published
Summary
The first class of participants in four of the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation's "Jobs for the Disadvantaged" programs graduated in June 1987. The telephone interview survey described in this report gathered information on the educational and work status of these graduates six months later, along with similar information for a matched comparison group of nonparticipants in each site. There were relatively small numbers of graduates in these four sites: 74 program and 45 comparison-group members. While response rates were high—94 percent among program participants and 88 percent among...
1986–87 Evaluation Report
Published
Summary
In the fall of 1985, 10 academy programs were established by the State of California as replications of the Peninsula Academies. Policy Analysis for California Education evaluated these 10 academies in 1985–86. This report presents findings from a second evaluation covering the academies' 1986–87 school year.
Program Successes and Evaluations Under 'Jobs for the Disadvantaged'
Publication author
Published
Summary
In early 1980, the Clark Foundation launched an ambitious series of demonstration programs designed to address the high rate of school dropouts and youth unemployment in several American cities. These programs shared a focus on disadvantaged minority youth, but they varied in their structure from site to site—from a focus on job search and placement in grades 11 and 12, to academic skills and vocational training throughout high school. Beginning with the 1984–85 school year, the evaluations' emphasis moved from technical assistance and process evaluation to assessing changes in student...
Published
Summary
This is the fourth edition of Conditions of Education in California. It is the most extensive and inclusive issue yet. It has been altered in both content and format. The content has been expanded. In addition to previously appearing components such as enrollments, curriculum, governance, human resources, student performance, and finance, a special features section has been added. This year, education reform processes are the topic of this new section. Next year we will select a different topic on which to concentrate. Of course, we continue in this edition to include the sections on the...
Part I: Study Findings
Publication authors
Published
Summary
In 1983, California enacted a comprehensive bill (Senate Bill 813) containing dozens of education reform provisions. The scope of the proposed changes had no previous parallel. The bill's many ideas for school improvement, if implemented, potentially could have altered the curriculum and instructional practices of virtually every school in the state. However, despite the bill's sweeping scope, and the large accompanying revenue increases, it included neither a proven effective reform philosophy nor a cohesive school change strategy. At the most fundamental level, Senate Bill 813 represented a...
A Preschool Through High School Concern
Publication author
Published
Summary
Americans generally hold the belief that success comes through education. And in many fields, the years of schooling required for employment have risen dramatically. Despite this emphasis on education, however, thousands of students continue to drop out. Understanding why students drop out is important in developing effective dropout prevention strategies. But by focusing on the specific act of dropping out and emphasizing associated consequences, educators have often neglected the search for earlier clues. As students progress through the grades, their experiences shape their thinking about...
Part II: Background and Technical Appendices
Publication authors
Published
Summary
In the early 1980s, a study of California secondary students' pathways through high school documented an erosion in secondary school curriculum. Electives had replaced academic courses; student exposure to sound mathematics, science, and U.S. history had dropped; and courses taken to graduate from high school had failed to aggregate into a clear body of knowledge. In 1982, the California Business Roundtable proposed a series of reforms to remedy these system declines. Also in 1982, Bill Honig, then a member of the State Board of Education, won election to the office of superintendent of public...
Publication authors
Published
Summary
Vocational education in California is experiencing increasing criticism and significant enrollment declines. Between 1982-83 and 1984-85, for example, industrial arts enrollment dropped 16 percent and home economics enrollment declined 21 percent. While associating declines in these courses with the increased academic offerings and requirements for high school graduation and college entrance that occurred simultaneously bears further study, vocational education enrollment began decreasing shortly after Proposition 13 in 1978, long before new academic standards were imposed. This substantial...
A Study of Year-Round Education in California
Published
Summary
This study of year-round education programs in California was prompted by a recent increase in the number of schools that have shifted to year­-round programs. In an era of increasing enrollments, particularly among large minority-populated urban school districts, and fierce competition for scarce educational resources, many districts are choosing year-round education over more traditional alternatives such as portable classrooms, split sessions, and construction of new schools. For the most part, the decision to convert to a year-round program is based on what is the most expedient way to...
Publication authors
Published
Summary
This survey and analysis is pan of a larger study, A Study to Determine How to Organize and Expand Public School Programs to Reduce Dropout Rates for High Risk Students: Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents, undertaken by the California Senate Office of Research and funded in pan by the National Conference of State Legislators and the United States Office of Educational Research and Improvement The Senate Office of Research contracted with Policy Analysis for California Education to examine existing secondary sources such as available records of the California State Department of Education and...
Can the Two Policies Be Compatible?
Publication author
Published
Summary
This paper discusses the interaction between comprehensive education reforms and curricular services for special-needs students—mainly economically disadvantaged students eligible for state and federal compensatory education services. Concern about interaction between current education reforms and past categorical programs fuses several central issues that have evolved with federal and state educational program implementation, such as: (1) can top-down initiatives for change work, (2) what rules and regulations are needed to ensure faithful implementation of key programmatic goals, (3) what...
1985–1986 Evaluation Report
Published
Summary
The Peninsula Academies are a three-year high school program for at-risk students, designed to provide them with incentives both to graduate and to acquire labor market-relevant skills. An Academy combines academic and technical training in a school-within-a-school setting. It is based on a school-business partnership, and offers students access to guest speakers, career-oriented field trips, employee mentors, and work experience. Since the fall of 1981, the Peninsula Academies have been operated by the Sequoia Union High School District in Redwood City, California. In the fall of 1985, ten...
Evaluating Omnibus Education Reforms in the 1980s
Published
Summary
In this study, the authors investigate curricular changes in California compre­hensive high schools from 1982–83 to 1984–85. During this period, a number of educational reforms occurred, all aimed at bolstering the academic demands of secondary schools. Senate Bill 813 mandated more extensive statewide graduation requirements for high schools, while California state universities and the University of California altered their entrance requirements. In addition, a number of na­tional reports found U.S. high schools lacking in academic rigor. Although it is difficult to ascertain the precise...
Published
Summary
Continuing growth and sustained progress on educational reform characterize California's public schools, but the Gann spending limit, which potentially restricts state dollars for education, and projected shortages of highly qualified teachers dampen prospects for continued educational improvements. Indications of important educational progress in California, which PACE documented in Conditions of Education in California, 1985, continue on many fronts. This is particularly true when compared to the recent decade of serious decline in California's public school system. In 1986, student...
Publication authors
Published
Summary
States can play substantive and important roles in helping local schools. The article in this section, which stems from a study by the Education Commission of the States (ECS), document those elements of the change process that work to transform schools into more effective organizations. Since the late 1970s, well before the start of the current re­form movement in education, the states have been actively en­gaged in helping districts and individual schools to implement research findings on effective schools, effective teach­ing, and the processes of educational change. This article re­ports...
The Link Between Assessment and Financial Support
Publication author
Published
Summary
Public school policy mak­ing is embedded in a complex societal matrix. It is not possi­ble to consider the future of U.S. schools without examining the size and distribution of future populations; the future state of the economy and its ef­fect on funds available for the schools; and the political context within which decisions will be made. The public school system is a "dependent variable" of larger social and economic forces. This article was originally published in the Phi Delta Kappan by Phi Delta Kappa International and Journal Storage (JSTOR).
Publication author
Published
Summary
Accountability became fashionable in the 1960s. In the 1970s, there was a heated discussion about the pros and cons of ac­countability. We discussed the need for accountability. We also discussed problems and limitations. During the 1960s and 1970s state account­ ability systems began to emerge. For ex­ample, Michigan, Florida, and New York instituted statewide accountability sys­tems. These varied in philosophy, empha­sis, and effectiveness. What is new today is a widespread recognition that increased state funding of public education will inevitably trigger new calls for state ac...
Published
Summary

This is the second edition of Conditions of Education in California. It is a technical report intended primarily for individuals such as public officials, professional educators, association executives, union leaders, governmental agency staff, education journalists, business executives, informed citizens, and others who have more than a passing interest in California's educational system. The magnitude and complexity of public education in California are seldom well understood. Public schools in this state now serve more than four million students and cost $17 billion annually. The school...

1982–83 to 1984–85
Published
Summary
This study investigates curricular changes in California comprehensive high schools from 1982-83 to 1984-85. During this period a number of educational reforms occurred, all aimed at bolstering the academic demands of secondary schools. Senate Bill 813 mandated more extensive statewide graduation requirements for high schools, while California State Universities and the University of California altered their entrance requirements. In addition, a number of national reports found America's high schools lacking in academic rigor (Boyer, 1983; National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983)...