Published
Summary
Although all students change schools when they are promoted from one school level to another, some students also move from one school to another for reasons other than promotion. The practice of students making non-promotional school changes is referred to as student mobility. Past research has documented that student mobility is widespread in the United States and often detrimental to the educational achievement of students. Yet little of this research has focused on the secondary level or examined mobility from the school perspective. This study examined three important aspects of student...
Published
Summary
Although all students change schools when they are promoted from one school level to another, some students also move from one school to another for reasons other than promotion. The practice of students making non-promotional school changes is referred to as student mobility. Past research has documented that student mobility is widespread in the United States and often detrimental to the educational achievement of students. Yet little of this research has focused on the secondary level or examined mobility from the school perspective. This study examined three important aspects of student...
Abundant Hopes, Scarce Evidence of Results: Executive Summary
Published
Summary
It’s difficult to find anyone who is happy with public education. From your neighbor to our political leaders, everyone is eager to reform the schools. Polls show that even if we are satisfied with our elementary school down the street, we are distressed about the quality of public education overall. This is where the consensus begins and ends. Contention arises immediately over the next question: What’s the best strategy for improving the public schools? What policies and long-term institutional changes can be implemented that will steadily boost children’s learning? This PACE report focuses...
Abundant Hopes, Scarce Evidence of Results
Published
Summary
It's difficult to find anyone who is happy with public education. From your neighbor to our political leaders, everyone is eager to reform the schools. Polls show that even if we are satisfied with our elementary school down the street, we are distressed about the quality of public education overall. This is where the consensus begins and ends. Contention arises immediately over the next question: What's the best strategy for improving the public schools? What policies and long-term institutional changes can be implemented that will steadily boost children's learning? This PACE report focuses...
A Reappraisal
Published
Summary
Two stylized facts dominate current educational policy thinking in the U.S. The first is that public schools are ineffective. The second is that they are ineffective because they are not accountable for producing high academic achievement. At one extreme, these stylized facts are interpreted to mean that public education cannot be made more efficient. According to this view, the public sector is structurally incapable of delivering high quality educational services to the diverse student populations in schools. It is too bureaucratic, too unionized, and a monopoly. Improving schooling requires...
How Do Local Interests and Resources Shape Pedagogical Practices?
Published
Summary
This reports argues that much of what actually occurs in bilingual education depends on the discourse and resulting policies at the school district level, and that is one reason why the construction of "bilingual education" varies so greatly and can be seen so positively or so negatively by the very clientele it is supposed to serve. Not surprisingly, within each school district the very definition of second language education centers on interpretations of bow to deliver it—specifically on whether and how to recruit bilingual teachers and whether to implement curricula that are at all oriented...
California Families Face Gaps in Preschool and Child Care Availability
Published
Summary
This report details stark inequities in how preschool and childcare opportunities are distributed among four California counties, across communities situated within these counties, and among the state's 200 localities with the most families receiving welfare benefits. Despite spending $1.2 billion each year on preschool and childcare programs, no single state agency has been able to assess the overall supply of these programs or the distribution of supply. Over half of California's 3.3 million preschool-age children (age 0–5 years) live in households with a working mother. Half these...
Standards and Assessments
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Published
Summary
Paper prepared for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL, March 24, 1997 (revised April 1, 1997). This case study traces the evolution of California's curriculum-related reforms, especially those which have influenced mathematics and science, and examines such reforms within the larger framework of the state's shifting political and policy context. Central to this study is the question of what role the California Department of Education played in relation to other state agencies and actors in developing curriculum policies. Although...
The Influence of Household Support, Ethnicity, and Parental Practices
Published
Summary
Accumulating evidence shows that young children benefit develop­mentally by participating in quality childcare centers and preschools. But we know little about which family characteristics and home practices influence parents' selection of a center-based program. This article reports on the influence of the family's social-structural attributes, ethnicity, and parental practices on the likelihood of selecting a center-based program, after taking into account economic characteristics. The odds that parents enroll their child in a center-based program are greatest when mothers are more highly...
1993–96
Publication authors
Published
Summary
Questions about the feasibility of and political support for new forms of pupil assessment have become major issues. With the California Learning Assessment System (CLAS), California became a pio­neer in these new forms of assessment. For a variety of reasons however, parents, con­servative religious groups, the California School Boards Association, the Califor­nia Teachers Association, and the governor all raised objections to the as­sessment during its 1993 implementation. As a result of this dissent, CLAS is now discontinued, but many questions re­main. Answers to them can shed light both...
Child Care and Development Services for Children and Families: Phase III Final Report, Part 2
Published
Summary
Phase III was designed to further analyze the preliminary recommendations and to utilize the assistance of childcare and development community to re­design childcare and development policy. Professional judgment and experience was sought from representatives from the three lead agencies and the childcare and development field. For six of the nine tasks included in the project, work groups were assembled to discuss new proposals and ideas for improving services within the state. Over 80 people spent thousands of hours contributing their experience and expertise to these efforts. Three...
Child Care and Development Services for Children and Families: Phase III Final Report, Part 1
Published
Summary

Phase III was designed to further analyze the preliminary recommendations and to utilize the assistance of childcare and development community to re­design childcare and development policy. Professional judgment and experience was sought from representatives from the three lead agencies and the childcare and development field. For six of the nine tasks included in the project, work groups were assembled to discuss new proposals and ideas for improving services within the state. Over 80 people spent thousands of hours contributing their experience and expertise to these efforts. Three...

1993–96
Publication authors
Published
Summary
The feasibility and political support for new forms of pupil assessment has become a major political issue. California was a pioneer through a system entitled "The California Learning Assessment System" (CLAS). For different reasons, conservative religious groups, parents, the California School Board Association, the California Teachers Association, and the Governor all raised objections to the assessment during its 1993 implementation. With CLAS now discontinued, many questions emerge. Answers to these can shed light not only on the future of assessment policy in California, but more...
Results of the PACE 1996 Poll
Published
Summary
In February 1996, PACE conducted a statewide poll on Californians' views on and expectations for the public schools. In particular, the poll was designed to gain insight into the alignment of the public's views with current directions in education policy. Conducting a poll among Californians is especially relevant because no comprehensive public poll has been conducted in recent memory, and because poll results can serve to inform the wide range of policy discussions underway at the state level. State policymakers, for example, are in the process of redesigning a statewide assessment system...
Publication authors
Published
Summary
Historically, the education productivity problem has been rising resources with flat or only slowly rising student achievement. In the period 1960–1990, infla­tion-adjusted revenues per pupil rose by slightly more than 200%. However, despite a number of positive performance indi­cators, student achievement in core subject areas during the same period rose only modestly. The future productivity problem is producing much higher student achievement, the goal of current education reform, with stable resources, because education resources have been flat for the past five years and are unlikely to...
California's History in Child Care and Development
Publication author
Published
Summary
Another new curriculum manual is Kids' Time: A School­ Age Care Program Guide, which grew out of discussions at a national conference on Block Grant funding about the lack of materials on school-age childcare, an expanding field for latchkey youngsters. Other widely-recognized materials include Just Kids: A Practical Guide for Working with Children Prenatally Substance-Exposed, Preparing for Mass Disasters, and A Guide for Training and Recruiting Child Care Providers to Serve Young Children with Disabilities. Reducing Exceptional Stress and Trauma, a curriculum guide and training manual on...
Child Care and Development Services for Children and Families: Phase II Final Report Executive Summary
Published
Summary
The Phase II final report of the California Cares Project undertaken by Policy Analysis for California Education for the California Department of Education (CDE), California Department of Social Services (CDSS ), and the Office of Child Development and Education, cul­minates the research and conceptual activi­ties carried out in Phase II of the California Cares Project. In 1992, the California legislature moved to bring more unity to childcare and development services in the state. It enacted AB 2184, which called for an investigation into the feasibility of con­solidating all childcare and...
Publication authors
Published
Summary
This report is a review of the data currently gathered and disseminated on the state level for K–12 public schools in California. It is one of four reports which together comprise the Poverty and Race Research Action Council's state data reconnaissance project, coordinated by the California Budget Project. This report is designed as a data guide for researchers and policymakers regarding the kind and quality of education data available. The education portion of the report was gathered by PACE. The catalogue section of this report outlines state level data: raw data sets and published reports...
Child Care and Development Services for Children and Families: Phase I Final Report
Published
Summary
Policy Analysis for California Education was selected to conduct this study under an interagency agreement with the California Depart­ment of Education, California Department of Social Services, and the Governor's Office of Child Devel­opment and Education. PACE's task is to analyze the issues and options for improving California's child care system—using the task force's definition of "seamlessness" as the goal and its seven principles as guideposts—with a particular focus on the relationship among access, quality, and funding. Phase I of the study includes analyses of issues surrounding...
Published
Summary
This is the ninth edition of Conditions of Education in California. In this volume PACE has compiled information on current critical issues in state education policy and presented them within the context of major policy developments. The Evolving Context introduces the current issues in the state and sets the stage for the remaining chapters. They are: Assessment and Achievement, Finance, Teachers and Teaching, Integrated Children's Services, Child Care and Development Services, and School-to-Work.
A Plan for California’s Schools
Published
Summary
Nearly five years ago, in fall 1990, PACE issued a reform plan for California schools. The state's schools faced enormous challenges and, PACE then asserted, only a systematic, all-encompassing approach to reform could help meet students' diverse and growing needs. PACE acknowledged that California had taken some important steps toward education reform, but much remained to be accomplished. The challenges PACE pointed to in 1990 have not abated. If anything, they have intensified. They revolve around three key issues: explosive growth, increasing diversity, and lagging student achievement...
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Summary
It is difficult to envision a people more preoccupied with performance than Americans. Keeping records, shattering records, breaking world records, setting national records, establishing personal records, or being the first, the best, or the most are all the "stuff" of our national obsession with measuring individual and institutional performance. Almost every U.S. city, whether it be a metropolis or a hamlet, lays some claim to a record. It somehow possesses the largest, oldest, longest, heaviest, slowest, tallest, greatest, smallest, tastiest, deepest, quietest, fastest, highest, or...
Published
Summary
This is the seventh edition of Conditions of Education in California. Since 1984, PACE has endeavored to compile a continuing picture of education in the state by analyzing data about enrollment trends, student achievement, fiscal conditions, human resources, education governance, and the politics of education. These analyses have been limited to comparisons of California with itself over time. The 1991 version represents a shift. Beginning with this edition of Conditions of Education, PACE will analyze California education dimensions by placing California state­ specific data within multi...
Remembering the 'Forgotten Half'
Published
Summary
In recent years, we have re­peatedly been forced to confront a troubling picture of declining knowledge and skills among the young people of the U.S., particularly those who do not attend college. These youths, who come increasingly from the poor and minority populations, were christened the "forgotten half" in the 1988 report released by the William T. Grant Foundation Commission on Work, Fami­ly, and Citizenship. The commission char­acterized the forgotten half as "the young people who build our homes, drive our buses, repair our automobiles, fix our tel­evisions, maintain and serve our...
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Published
Summary
After taking a back seat to education reform pro­grams during the 1980s, school finance is again in the forefront. With the re­cent sweeping state supreme court deci­sions overturning school finance struc­tures in Kentucky, New Jersey, and Tex­as, and with active or planned cases in 23 additional states, education finance liti­gation, fiscal inequities, and school fi­nance reform have rebounded to high places on state education policy agendas. This article discusses the changing contours of school finance through the 1970s and 1980s and outlines the key is­sues in school finance for the 1990s...